Multiple Intelligence vs IQ
Gardner's multiple intelligences theory challenged traditional beliefs in the fields of education and cognitive science.
According to a traditional definition, intelligence is a uniform cognitive capacity people are born with. This capacity can be easily measured by short-answer tests.
According to Howard Gardner, intelligence is:
- The ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture;
- A set of skills that make it possible for a person to solve problems in life;
- The potential for finding or creating solutions for problems, which involves gathering new knowledge.
Many educators, researchers, students and parents have long rejected multiple choice testing as a measure of intelligence. Multiple intelligence theory has served as a rallying point for a reconsideration of the educational practice of the last century.
|Traditional view of "Intelligence"||"Multiple Intelligences" Theory|
|Intelligence can be measured by short-answer tests: Stanford-Binet Intelligence Quotient Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISCIV) Woodcock Johnson test of Cognitive Ability Scholastic Aptitude Test||Assessment of an individual's multiple intelligences can foster learning and problem-solving styles. Short answer tests are not used because they do not measure disciplinary mastery or deep understanding. They only measure rote memorization skills and one's ability to do well on short answer tests. Some states have developed tests that value process over the final answer, such as PAM (Performance Assessment in Math) and PAL (Performance Assessment in Language)|
|People are born with a fixed amount of intelligence.||Human beings have all of the intelligences, but each person has a unique combination, or profile|
|Intelligence level does not change over a lifetime.||We can all improve each of the intelligences, though some people will improve more readily in one intelligence area than in others.|
|Intelligence consists of ability in logic and language.||There are many more types of intelligence which reflect different ways of interacting with the world|
|In traditional practice, teachers teach the same material to everyone.||M.I. pedagogy implies that teachers teach and assess differently based on individual intellectual strengths and weaknesses.|
|Teachers teach a topic or "subject."||Teachers structure learning activities around an issue or question and connect subjects. Teachers develop strategies that allow for students to demonstrate multiple ways of understanding and value their uniqueness.|
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